# Multitape Rational Expressions¶

This page is a complement to the paper Derived-Term Automata of Multitape Rational Expressions presented at CIAA 2016. This page exists in several forms:

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In :
import vcsn


# Example $\mathsf{E}_1$: A Simple Multitape Expression¶

First we introduce the "context" we are interested in: labels are letter-or-empty-word, two tapes, values are rational numbers.

In :
ctx = vcsn.context('lat<lan(abcde), lan(xy)>, q')
ctx

Out:
$(\{a, b, c, d, e\})^? \times (\{x, y\})^?\to\mathbb{Q}$

The expression $\mathsf{E}_1$ is:

In :
e1 = ctx.expression('⟨5⟩ε|ε + ⟨4⟩ade*|x + ⟨3⟩bde*|x + ⟨2⟩ace*|xy + ⟨6⟩bce*|xy')
e1

Out:
$\left. \left\langle 5 \right\rangle \,\varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \right. + \left. \left\langle 4 \right\rangle \,\left(a \, d \, {e}^{*}\right) \middle| x \right. + \left. \left\langle 3 \right\rangle \,\left(b \, d \, {e}^{*}\right) \middle| x \right. + \left. \left\langle 2 \right\rangle \,\left(a \, c \, {e}^{*}\right) \middle| x \, y \right. + \left. \left\langle 6 \right\rangle \,\left(b \, c \, {e}^{*}\right) \middle| x \, y \right.$

Its expansion is (contrary to the paper, the empty expression is denoted $\varepsilon$ instead of $\mathsf{1}$):

In :
e1.expansion()

Out:
$\left\langle 5\right\rangle \oplus a|x \odot \left[\left\langle 2\right\rangle \left. c \, {e}^{*} \middle| y \right. \oplus \left\langle 4\right\rangle \left. d \, {e}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \right. \right] \oplus b|x \odot \left[\left\langle 6\right\rangle \left. c \, {e}^{*} \middle| y \right. \oplus \left\langle 3\right\rangle \left. d \, {e}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \right. \right]$

The derived-term automaton of $\mathsf{E}_1$, $\mathcal{A}_{\mathsf{E}_1}$, is:

In :
a1 = e1.derived_term()
a1

Out:

The 10 shortest "multitape words" it accepts are:

In :
a1.shortest(10)

Out:
$\left\langle 5\right\rangle \varepsilon|\varepsilon \oplus \left\langle 2\right\rangle \mathit{ac}|\mathit{xy} \oplus \left\langle 4\right\rangle \mathit{ad}|\mathit{x} \oplus \left\langle 6\right\rangle \mathit{bc}|\mathit{xy} \oplus \left\langle 3\right\rangle \mathit{bd}|\mathit{x} \oplus \left\langle 2\right\rangle \mathit{ace}|\mathit{xy} \oplus \left\langle 4\right\rangle \mathit{ade}|\mathit{x} \oplus \left\langle 6\right\rangle \mathit{bce}|\mathit{xy} \oplus \left\langle 3\right\rangle \mathit{bde}|\mathit{x} \oplus \left\langle 2\right\rangle \mathit{acee}|\mathit{xy}$

# Example $\mathcal{A}_3$: An Exponential Number of States¶

We introduce a three-tape context. The graphical rendering is less satisfying.

In :
ctx3 = vcsn.context('lat<lan, lan, lan>, q')
a3 = ctx3.expression('a*|b*|c*').derived_term()
a3

Out:

Currently Vcsn is not able to extract nice rational expressions from such an automaton: it will always produce a "simple-tape expression over multitape generators":

In :
a3.expression()

Out:
$\left(a|b|c\right)^{*} \, \left(\varepsilon + \left(\varepsilon|\varepsilon|c\right) \, \left(\varepsilon|\varepsilon|c\right)^{*} + \left(\varepsilon|b|\varepsilon\right) \, \left(\varepsilon|b|\varepsilon\right)^{*} + \left(a|\varepsilon|\varepsilon\right) \, \left(a|\varepsilon|\varepsilon\right)^{*} + \left(\varepsilon|b|c\right) \, \left(\varepsilon|b|c\right)^{*} \, \left(\varepsilon + \left(\varepsilon|\varepsilon|c\right) \, \left(\varepsilon|\varepsilon|c\right)^{*} + \left(\varepsilon|b|\varepsilon\right) \, \left(\varepsilon|b|\varepsilon\right)^{*}\right) + \left(a|\varepsilon|c\right) \, \left(a|\varepsilon|c\right)^{*} \, \left(\varepsilon + \left(\varepsilon|\varepsilon|c\right) \, \left(\varepsilon|\varepsilon|c\right)^{*} + \left(a|\varepsilon|\varepsilon\right) \, \left(a|\varepsilon|\varepsilon\right)^{*}\right) + \left(a|b|\varepsilon\right) \, \left(a|b|\varepsilon\right)^{*} \, \left(\varepsilon + \left(\varepsilon|b|\varepsilon\right) \, \left(\varepsilon|b|\varepsilon\right)^{*} + \left(a|\varepsilon|\varepsilon\right) \, \left(a|\varepsilon|\varepsilon\right)^{*}\right)\right)$

Instead of displaying the automaton, we may list its states, for instance in the case of a five-tape expression.

In :
import re
def states(a):
'''The states of an automaton, sorted.'''
res = re.findall(r'label = "(.*?)", shape', a.dot(), re.M)
res.sort()
return res

ctx5 = vcsn.context('lat<lan(a), lan(b), lan(c), lan(d), lan(e)>, q')
e5 = ctx5.expression('a*|b*|c*|d*|e*')
e5

Out:
$\left. {a}^{*} \middle| {b}^{*} \middle| {c}^{*} \middle| {d}^{*} \middle| {e}^{*} \right.$
In :
e5.expansion()

Out:
$\left\langle 1\right\rangle \oplus \varepsilon|\varepsilon|\varepsilon|\varepsilon|e \odot \left[ \left. \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {e}^{*} \right. \right] \oplus \varepsilon|\varepsilon|\varepsilon|d|\varepsilon \odot \left[ \left. \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {d}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \right. \right] \oplus \varepsilon|\varepsilon|\varepsilon|d|e \odot \left[ \left. \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {d}^{*} \middle| {e}^{*} \right. \right] \oplus \varepsilon|\varepsilon|c|\varepsilon|\varepsilon \odot \left[ \left. \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {c}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \right. \right] \oplus \varepsilon|\varepsilon|c|\varepsilon|e \odot \left[ \left. \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {c}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {e}^{*} \right. \right] \oplus \varepsilon|\varepsilon|c|d|\varepsilon \odot \left[ \left. \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {c}^{*} \middle| {d}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \right. \right] \oplus \varepsilon|\varepsilon|c|d|e \odot \left[ \left. \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {c}^{*} \middle| {d}^{*} \middle| {e}^{*} \right. \right] \oplus \varepsilon|b|\varepsilon|\varepsilon|\varepsilon \odot \left[ \left. \varepsilon \middle| {b}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \right. \right] \oplus \varepsilon|b|\varepsilon|\varepsilon|e \odot \left[ \left. \varepsilon \middle| {b}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {e}^{*} \right. \right] \oplus \varepsilon|b|\varepsilon|d|\varepsilon \odot \left[ \left. \varepsilon \middle| {b}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {d}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \right. \right] \oplus \varepsilon|b|\varepsilon|d|e \odot \left[ \left. \varepsilon \middle| {b}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {d}^{*} \middle| {e}^{*} \right. \right] \oplus \varepsilon|b|c|\varepsilon|\varepsilon \odot \left[ \left. \varepsilon \middle| {b}^{*} \middle| {c}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \right. \right] \oplus \varepsilon|b|c|\varepsilon|e \odot \left[ \left. \varepsilon \middle| {b}^{*} \middle| {c}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {e}^{*} \right. \right] \oplus \varepsilon|b|c|d|\varepsilon \odot \left[ \left. \varepsilon \middle| {b}^{*} \middle| {c}^{*} \middle| {d}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \right. \right] \oplus \varepsilon|b|c|d|e \odot \left[ \left. \varepsilon \middle| {b}^{*} \middle| {c}^{*} \middle| {d}^{*} \middle| {e}^{*} \right. \right] \oplus a|\varepsilon|\varepsilon|\varepsilon|\varepsilon \odot \left[ \left. {a}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \right. \right] \oplus a|\varepsilon|\varepsilon|\varepsilon|e \odot \left[ \left. {a}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {e}^{*} \right. \right] \oplus a|\varepsilon|\varepsilon|d|\varepsilon \odot \left[ \left. {a}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {d}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \right. \right] \oplus a|\varepsilon|\varepsilon|d|e \odot \left[ \left. {a}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {d}^{*} \middle| {e}^{*} \right. \right] \oplus a|\varepsilon|c|\varepsilon|\varepsilon \odot \left[ \left. {a}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {c}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \right. \right] \oplus a|\varepsilon|c|\varepsilon|e \odot \left[ \left. {a}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {c}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {e}^{*} \right. \right] \oplus a|\varepsilon|c|d|\varepsilon \odot \left[ \left. {a}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {c}^{*} \middle| {d}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \right. \right] \oplus a|\varepsilon|c|d|e \odot \left[ \left. {a}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {c}^{*} \middle| {d}^{*} \middle| {e}^{*} \right. \right] \oplus a|b|\varepsilon|\varepsilon|\varepsilon \odot \left[ \left. {a}^{*} \middle| {b}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \right. \right] \oplus a|b|\varepsilon|\varepsilon|e \odot \left[ \left. {a}^{*} \middle| {b}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {e}^{*} \right. \right] \oplus a|b|\varepsilon|d|\varepsilon \odot \left[ \left. {a}^{*} \middle| {b}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {d}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \right. \right] \oplus a|b|\varepsilon|d|e \odot \left[ \left. {a}^{*} \middle| {b}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {d}^{*} \middle| {e}^{*} \right. \right] \oplus a|b|c|\varepsilon|\varepsilon \odot \left[ \left. {a}^{*} \middle| {b}^{*} \middle| {c}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| \varepsilon \right. \right] \oplus a|b|c|\varepsilon|e \odot \left[ \left. {a}^{*} \middle| {b}^{*} \middle| {c}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \middle| {e}^{*} \right. \right] \oplus a|b|c|d|\varepsilon \odot \left[ \left. {a}^{*} \middle| {b}^{*} \middle| {c}^{*} \middle| {d}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \right. \right] \oplus a|b|c|d|e \odot \left[ \left. {a}^{*} \middle| {b}^{*} \middle| {c}^{*} \middle| {d}^{*} \middle| {e}^{*} \right. \right]$
In :
a5 = e5.derived_term()
states(a5)

Out:
['a*|b*|c*|d*|e*',
'a*|b*|c*|d*|ε',
'a*|b*|c*|ε|e*',
'a*|b*|c*|ε|ε',
'a*|b*|ε|d*|e*',
'a*|b*|ε|d*|ε',
'a*|b*|ε|ε|e*',
'a*|b*|ε|ε|ε',
'a*|ε|c*|d*|e*',
'a*|ε|c*|d*|ε',
'a*|ε|c*|ε|e*',
'a*|ε|c*|ε|ε',
'a*|ε|ε|d*|e*',
'a*|ε|ε|d*|ε',
'a*|ε|ε|ε|e*',
'a*|ε|ε|ε|ε',
'ε|b*|c*|d*|e*',
'ε|b*|c*|d*|ε',
'ε|b*|c*|ε|e*',
'ε|b*|c*|ε|ε',
'ε|b*|ε|d*|e*',
'ε|b*|ε|d*|ε',
'ε|b*|ε|ε|e*',
'ε|b*|ε|ε|ε',
'ε|ε|c*|d*|e*',
'ε|ε|c*|d*|ε',
'ε|ε|c*|ε|e*',
'ε|ε|c*|ε|ε',
'ε|ε|ε|d*|e*',
'ε|ε|ε|d*|ε',
'ε|ε|ε|ε|e*']

## Example $\mathsf{E}_2$: A Sed-like Substitution¶

In :
e2 = ctx.expression('(a{+}|x + b{+}|y)*')
e2

Out:
$\left( \left. a \, {a}^{*} \middle| x \right. + \left. b \, {b}^{*} \middle| y \right. \right)^{*}$
In :
e2.expansion()

Out:
$\left\langle 1\right\rangle \oplus a|x \odot \left[\left( \left. {a}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \right. \right) \, \left( \left. a \, {a}^{*} \middle| x \right. + \left. b \, {b}^{*} \middle| y \right. \right)^{*}\right] \oplus b|y \odot \left[\left( \left. {b}^{*} \middle| \varepsilon \right. \right) \, \left( \left. a \, {a}^{*} \middle| x \right. + \left. b \, {b}^{*} \middle| y \right. \right)^{*}\right]$
In :
a2 = e2.derived_term()
a2

Out:

Again, the extracted expression is less readable.

In :
a2.expression()

Out:
$\varepsilon + \left(a|x\right) \, \left(a|\varepsilon + a|x\right)^{*} + \left(b|y + \left(a|x\right) \, \left(a|\varepsilon + a|x\right)^{*} \, \left(b|y\right)\right) \, \left(b|\varepsilon + b|y + \left(a|x\right) \, \left(a|\varepsilon + a|x\right)^{*} \, \left(b|y\right)\right)^{*} \, \left(\varepsilon + \left(a|x\right) \, \left(a|\varepsilon + a|x\right)^{*}\right)$

## A More Complex Expression¶

The previous examples often look like sed-like substitutions, in the sense that the first tape was often a composite expression, but the second tape a simple label. There is no such limitation.

In :
e = ctx.expression('(<2>[ab])* | (<3>[xy])*')
e

Out:
$\left. \left( \left\langle 2 \right\rangle \,\left(a + b\right)\right)^{*} \middle| \left( \left\langle 3 \right\rangle \,\left(x + y\right)\right)^{*} \right.$
In :
a = e.derived_term()
a

Out:
In :
print('{:l}'.format(a.shortest(20)))

\e|\e
<3>\e|x
<3>\e|y
<2>a|\e
<6>a|x
<6>a|y
<2>b|\e
<6>b|x
<6>b|y
<9>\e|xx
<9>\e|xy
<9>\e|yx
<9>\e|yy
<18>a|xx
<18>a|xy
<18>a|yx
<18>a|yy
<18>b|xx
<18>b|xy
<18>b|yx